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Effects of chemical pesticides on beneficial and harmful insect populations on four farms in Central Massachusetts

Abstract Finding sustainable methods to control pest insects that affect crop yield is a pressing, worldwide concern for agriculture. In recent decades, there has been interest in developing less toxic…

The Effect of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Sixth Graders’ Mental Math Performance

We examined the relationship between different forms of reinforcement and subjects’ mathematical performance. Thirty sixth-grade students were asked to mentally calculate answers to fraction problems, while holding a heart rate…